A man who worked on his ideas until the day he died, a man who focused every minute of his life to science and discovery. Even his greatest blunder turned out to be revolutionary.
Whether you class the man as a crazy, deluded domestic abuser, or a scientific god among men responsible for almost every major breakthrough in the physics world, you have to respect the sheer intelligence and brilliance that was Albert Einstein.
4 November 1970
The Concorde 002 is born, and the Mach 2 barrier is broken. In 1970 the Concorde finally reached one of Britain’s biggest airports; Heathrow.
1 June 1972
The Concorde starts a tour of Australia, the UAE and other countries to complete a 45,000 mile sales tour of the world.
26 September 1973
The 002 Concorde crosses the Atlantic for the first time, going from Washington to Paris in just over 3 and half hours.
6 December 1973
The maiden flight of the first ever production Concorde was carried out, the 201 made in Toulouse took to the skies and hit Mach 1.57 or 1,205 miles per hour!
21 January 1976
From London to Bahrain, captained by Norman Todd, the first flight of BA (British Airways) first ever Concorde took to the skies. The plane had only arrived a few days earlier to Filton, Bristol. This flight was a live TV broadcast.
21 January 1981
Celebrating its 5th birthday, the Concorde’s magnificence is starting to be appreciated. With an astounding record of over 700,000 passengers, 50,000 flying hours and over 15,800 flights, the craft is given its rightful place as one of the best planes of all time.
31 March 1984
The British Government decide their involvement in Concorde has been too intense and left all funding and decision making almost solely down to BA.
13 July 1985
The power and reliability of the Concorde is proven by Phil Collins after he uses the service to fly from the U.S. Concert on the very same day to Live Aid Charity concert in the U.K.
1 November 1986
After celebrating its first decade of commercial flights in the January, Concorde went on to complete its first round the world charter flight in an astounding 1 day, 7 hours and 51 minutes.
25 March 1993
The first female pilot takes the reins; Barbara Harmer. She flew from the U.K. to JFK in the U.S. later that year.
7 February 1996
Trans-Atlantic flight records were about to be broken with the Concorde managing the flight in 172 minutes and 59 seconds.
11 August 1999
2 Concorde’s managed a visually mind-blowing feat of chasing the sun’s total eclipse as they fly in supersonic formation.
25 July 2000
This was an awful day in the history of the Concorde. On this day in Paris, France, Air France’s Concorde crashes and kills 113 people.
15 August 2000
The first toll of Concorde’s death, BA announces that it would stop flying Concorde’s. This decision was made that quickly that it even caused one craft to be stopped mid take-off following the craft’s Airworthiness certificate being revoked.
21 January 2001
A day filled with mixed emotions for many Concorde fans, it was just a short while after their favorite aircraft was knocked from the skies, and yet it was its 25 year anniversary of commercial flight.
7 November 2001
The return of the Concorde. After a lengthy and very pricey safety improvement drive from the team over at Concorde, the plane hit the skies as a commercial jet once again.
12 January 2002
The Paris crash results are in, the French Accident Investigation Bureau say that the cause of the incident was a chunk of rubber, caused by a stray strip of metal puncturing a tire, had shot up into the fuel tank and caused a leak.
10 April 2003
British Airways and Air France start ringing the definitive final bell. Both companies agree to retire the craft after the commercial flight numbers dropped which was in doubt due to the Paris crash.
31 May 2003
Air France had their last Concorde flight from JFK to Paris’ Charles De Gaulle Airport. All the French Concorde’s are on display around the world. In the October, the last BA Concorde flight took place.
10 March 2005
Paris’ dreadful crash is brought back into the limelight when Continental Airlines are put under investigation. They of course deny and wrongdoing and say the fire wasn’t caused by the strip itself claiming they made no errors.
6 December 2010
Continental Airlines could be forced to pay $1.2 million (£910,000) to Air France for damaging the airlines reputation and a further compensation payment to all those involved.
29 November 2012
Continental Airlines are in the Versailles appeals court and are deemed to have no criminal responsibility for the Paris crash as there was no link between the strip and the fire.
7 February 2017
Concorde 216 is given pride and place at the Aerospace Bristol’s special hanger near Filton Airfield. A joint operation between BA and Airbus engineers, the craft was dragged up the ramp and left to bask in the glory and history of this wonderful plane.
So there we have it, one of the most awe inspiring crafts of the late 20th century from anywhere in the world dragged through the mud in its final years all down to the existence of a strip of metal and a definitely appalling crash.
We must remember this craft for the technological amazement but also the questions that were raised and those lives lost on that fateful day in Paris. Whatever happened, you have to agree that the craft itself was unbelievable as a visit to one of Air France’s is definitely on the horizon.
D Day facts continue to fascinate people, even more than 50 years after the D-Day invasion took place. We gathered interesting facts about that fateful day on June 6th 1944, when the large-scale invasion of Normandy, France took place. D-Day marked a turning point in World War II and dictated the course of history.
Military historians are interested in facts about D Day invasion because of the sheer scale of the invasion. The people who lost their lives on the beaches of Normandy did not do so in vain, as D-Day marked the beginning of the Allies retaking Europe.
The term D-Day is a generic term used by the military since the early 1900s to describe the date a combat operation takes place. Because of the monumental nature of the Allied invasion of Normandy, that day on June 6th 1944 became legendary. Ever since, people have been fascinated by D-Day facts, and the term D-Day for most people now means the date in history when the Allies started to win the war in Europe.
D-Day was actually supposed to happen the day before, on June 5th 1944. However, because of bad weather, it was decided that the D-Day invasion would take place the following day, on June 6th.
The D-Day invasion took place in a coastal area of France, known as Normandy. Despite the region’s rich history, it is now most famously remembered as the scene of this bloody invasion
The codename for the Normandy Landings was Operation Neptune. Neptune is the Greek god of the sea, and it’s a fitting name, considering the invasion was launched from the sea.
Although the Allies were successful in their invasion of Normandy, it was nearly a year later, on May 9th 1945, that the entire German occupation of Normandy, including the surrounding islands, was completely ended.
In order to deceive the Germans, the Allies created a fake operation, Operation Bodyguard. This way, the Germans would not be sure of the exact date and location of the main Allied landings.
There were actually multiple fake operations designed to deceive the Germans. These included fake operations detailing attacks to the north and south of the actual landing points in Normandy. Some efforts were even made to make the Germans think that the attack would take place in Norway!
One of the lesser-known D Day facts is that the beaches of Normandy were a popular destination for visitors to the Atlantic coast before World War II. From the 1800s onwards, Normandy was a popular seaside tourist area. There are still many beautiful towns and resorts on the Normandy coast.
The Allies wanted a full moon to provide better sight for their aircraft. They also wanted to have one of the highest tides. The invasion was carefully scheduled to land partway between low tide and high tide, with the tide coming in.
The Normandy Landings known as D-Day were a multinational effort, with many countries involved. The Allied forces invading Normandy included troops from the United States, Britain, Canada, Poland, France, and more countries.
Many D-Day facts focus on the armaments each side had during the invasion. A lesser-known fact is the age of the German and the Allied forces. The German forces, due to heavy losses on the Eastern Front, no longer had a large population of young men to enlist. German soldiers were, on average, more than 5 years older than their Allied counterparts.
A lot of D Day facts focus on Normandy, where the Allies landed. A commonly asked question is “where did the Allies launch their invasion?” The Normandy landings were conducted from across the English Channel, with troops first gathering on British soil before launching the attack on that fateful day in June 1944.
The D-Day invasion, codenamed Operation Neptune, was part of a larger plan to take the European continent back from the Germans. Operation Overlord was the name assigned to the large-scale plan, and Operation Neptune was the first phase of the plan.
Planning for the D-Day invasion began long before the event actually took place. Historical D-Day facts reveal that an initial draft of the invasion plan was accepted at a conference in August 1943.
While a lot of D Day facts focus on the numbers of ships, troops and military armaments, one fact that is often overlooked is the number of generals who planned the invasion. There were two generals: United States General Dwight D. Eisenhower and British General Bernard Montgomery planned the attack. It should be noted that Eisenhower was the Commander in Chief of Operation Overlord.
Eisenhower and Montgomery reviewed the initial plans for D-Day and decided that a larger-scale invasion would be necessary. The goal of the Allies was to allow operations to move quickly, and to capture ports that were strategic to the overall plan of retaking the European continent.
It may be the epic scale of the D-Day invasion that explains just why people are so fascinated by D Day facts. It was one of the largest single military operations of all time, with more than 150,000 troops landing on five beaches in just a 50-mile stretch of land.
The first set of troops landing at Normandy signaled only the beginning of the invasion. Within seven days, the beaches where the Allies landed on D-Day were fully under their control. Get ready for some more massive D Day facts! By that time, more than 300,000 troops, 50,000 vehicles and over 100,000 tons of equipment had been brought through the beaches of Normandy! By the end of June 1944, the Allies had brought over 850,000 troops through the beaches of Normandy and ports that had been opened up as a result of the D-Day invasion.
The Allies divided the 50 miles of the Normandy coast into five beaches, or sections. The beaches at Normandy were named: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno and Sword.
Many military historians who are interested in D Day facts discuss how the weather impacted the D-Day invasion. In addition to delaying the invasion by one day, the weather blew the boats of the Allies east of their planned landing targets. This was especially true for the Utah and Omaha beach landing targets.
Omaha Beach was one of the areas where the Allies suffered the most casualties. The geography of the area played a role in the high number of casualties at Omaha Beach. High cliffs that lined the beach characterized the geography of the Omaha Beach landing target. Many American forces lost their lives because the Germans had gun positions on these high cliffs.
The saddest facts about d day invasion are the number of people who were injured, and the number of people who died, as a result of the invasion of Normandy. Due to the position of the German forces and the defenses they had built, the Allies suffered over 10,000 casualties, with over 4,000 people confirmed dead.
D Day facts reveal that over 2,400 Americans were killed or injured on Omaha Beach. This was as a result of the geography of the Omaha Beach landing target, and the weather that had blown the ships off their target. The weather had also led to the sinking of some tanks which were intended to provide support for the troops landing at Omaha Beach. The high number of casualties at Omaha was also in part due to the lack of artillery providing reinforcements for the troops.
Due to their positions, the Germans suffered fewer casualties than the invading Allied troops at Normandy. However, the Germans had no reinforcements to help them retake positions. Once the Allies had landed at Normandy, they took control of the beaches and continued until all of Europe was free.
The massive scale of the D-Day invasion and its important role in World War II make D Day facts fascinating, even today. Many people lost their lives fighting on the fateful day of June 6th 1944. The
Normandy landings were the beginning of a larger plan to retake Europe and codenamed Operation Overlord. Had the D-Day invasion failed, the result of World War II may have been very different. Thankfully, despite a heavy loss of life, the Allies were ultimately successful in taking the beaches of Normandy and retaking Europe.
Civil War Facts continue to fascinate people of all ages, from kids to adults. The consequences of the Civil War can still be felt today, although it was fought 150 years ago.
One of the most interesting facts about Civil War is that this was the first war to be extensively documented with photographs. Perhaps it’s the photographs of the soldiers that draw us in and make us want to learn more about Civil War.
There was a terrible loss of life on both sides of the Civil War. The emergence of railroads allowed troops and resources to be quickly mobilized, resulting in many bloody battles. Despite the bloody nature of the war, Civil War facts continue to enthrall us.
The Civil War was fought over slavery and the rights of states in the United States of America. During the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This document announced the end of slavery in the United States. The Civil War was a fight for freedom and equality. These interesting facts tell the story of the war by utilizing interesting facts that will keep you engaged.
A civil war is any war fought between people who are part of the same sovereign nation. This may be a fight for an independent state, or a fight for a new government altogether. There have been many civil wars throughout history. In the United States, the American Civil War is known simply as the Civil War.
In the 1860 election, the Republicans, who had Abraham Lincoln as their candidate, were running on a platform against slavery in the territories. Lincoln won the close election. Before he could be inaugurated, seven slave states seceded from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America.
South Carolina was the first state to secede from the United States, or what would be called the Union, during the war. South Carolina would be one of the most vocal of the states that challenged the Union. It was December 1860 when South Carolina argued for states’ rights in their declaration to secede from the union.
The first seven states to secede from the United States formed their own government. The government was called the Confederate States of America and was founded on February 4, 1861. The Confederate states took control of forts, federal establishments, and post offices that were in their jurisdiction.
While some Civil War facts are debated, most historians agree that the war started on April 12, 1861 at Fort Sumter. Fort Sumter is located in the middle of the port of Charleston, South Carolina. The Confederate States fired the first round of fire at Union troops. The Confederates took the fort before the Union troops could call for reinforcements.
After Fort Sumter was captured, Lincoln asked for each state in the United States to provide troops to take the fort back from the Confederates. After Lincoln made his request, four more states joined the Confederacy.
The four final states to join the Confederacy were Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee. The capital of the Confederacy was moved to Richmond in recognition of Virginia joining the Confederacy.
When we think of the United States, we often forget that we did not have all 50 states until the 1900s. One of the interesting Civil War facts is that two new states emerged from the war.
The war led to the creation of the new state of West Virginia. West Virginia was the northwestern portion of Virginia. Virginia joined the Confederacy, but people living in the northwestern part of the state agreed with the Union. On June 20, 1863 the state of West Virginia was born.
Nevada, which was a territory at the time, also joined the Union and became a state during the war on October 31, 1864.
Benjamin Franklin said that there are only two certainties in life: death and taxes. The Revenue Act of 1861 introduced income tax in the United States of America. It was first used to help finance the war against the Confederacy.
One of the Civil War facts that intrigues military historians is that the Civil War was one of the first wars to be fought on such a large scale. In some ways, it might be considered the first modern or industrial war.
Lincoln understood the scope of the war. He took control of the armed forces and declared himself commander-in-chief. This was the first time a President of the United States had done this. Among Lincoln’s first acts as commander-in-chief was to create a blockade on the ports of the Confederate states.
Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteer troops for three months after the attack on Fort Sumter. Jefferson Davis and the Confederates had previously authorized 100,000 troops for their forces. The Civil War would have high casualties because there were a lot of soldiers put into battle.
The Confederacy was the first to pass a draft law. In 1862 they started a draft that required men aged 18 to 35 to fight on behalf of the Confederate states.
The Union also had a draft. New immigrants to the United States were often drafted into the Union forces, sometimes without their knowledge. In 1863 there was a riot in New York City by Irish immigrants. These immigrants had been signed up as citizens to secure votes in Congress. Only later did they find out that this made them eligible for the draft.
Replacements were often used when someone was drafted in the Union. Just like replacement teachers, replacement soldiers were called substitutes. Out of the more than 150,000 men who were drafted, over 100,000 were substitutes. Freed slaves were often used as substitutes and were enlisted as soldiers by some states to ensure they met their quota for the draft.
The Union, comprised of the remaining states and territories in the United States that did not join the Confederacy, established a plan to block the Confederacy from getting outside resources. They called their plan the Anaconda Plan.
Union troops set up patrols to the west of the Confederate states in addition to the blockade established by Lincoln with the Navy to the east. By surrounding the Confederate States, and squeezing their resources, the Union plan was to choke them into submission, in a similar manner to that of the Anaconda snake crushing its prey.
This famous plan is another one of the Civil War facts that fascinates historians and kids. The vivid analogy of the snake captures our imagination. When it was implemented, the plan left the Confederacy nowhere to go but north.
Between 1861 and 1862, no side in the Civil War was clearly winning the war. By 1862, the Confederates had driven north to Maryland where they fought the Battle of Antietam, but had to retreat. The British considered getting involved in the war, but decided not to after this bloody battle took place. Over 20,000 soldiers were killed or wounded in just one day, with heavy casualties on both sides. The world had never seen a war on this scale before.
Perhaps the British were right not to get involved directly in the Civil War. Over the course of the war, 237 battles that were big enough to be named were fought. Civil War facts are filled with names like Fredericksburg, Antietam, and Gettysburg — the places where so many soldiers lost their lives. There were also many smaller conflicts that took place.
It’s easy to confuse some facts about Civil War because in certain locations there were two battles fought over the course of the war. Some examples of these battles include the first and second battles of Bull Run and the first and second battles of Lexington.
The Civil War had so many battles and was so deadly that over 600,000 soldiers died during the course of the war. It was only after the Vietnam War that the number of American soldiers who died in foreign wars became greater than the number who died in the Civil War.
The end of slavery in the United States is one of the most important Civil War facts and a big reason that the war was fought. During the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. This document proclaimed the end of slavery in the United States. As an affront to the Confederacy, the document also proclaimed all slaves in the Confederate States to be free as well.
While most Civil War facts center on the battles that took place on land, there was significant marine combat during the war. Most of this combat took place during blockades and sieges on the Atlantic coast, but there were also some conflicts on rivers.
Lacking a substantial railway system, the Confederacy tried in vain to secure control of rivers to transport troops and resources. However, this was a lost cause for the Confederacy. By 1863 the Confederate Navy, which attempted to wage war on the rivers of the United States, was completely destroyed. The tide was beginning to turn in favor of the Union.
Initially, there was a series of exchanges for prisoners. Soldiers who were captured agreed not to fight and would stay in camps until they were exchanged for soldiers from the opposite side.
By 1863, these sorts of conventions began to fall apart. The Confederate States refused to exchange Black prisoners after the Emancipation Proclamation. From then on, the prison camps in the war became almost as deadly as the war itself. One of the deadliest Civil War facts is that more than 50,000 people died while in prison during the Civil War.
In 1863, by sheer determination and under the leadership of General Robert E. Lee, Confederate forces had build momentum and traveled further north into Pennsylvania. However, they were cut off from significant reinforcements or supplies.
The Battle of Gettysburg was another bloody conflict in the Civil War that took place from July 1 to July 3, 1863. Civil War historians consider the Battle of Gettysburg to be the high-water mark of the Confederacy.
Civil War facts about the Battle of Gettysburg are fascinating for military historians who study strategy. Without reinforcements, and due to some critical strategic blunders, the Confederates lost the Battle of Gettysburg.
After the loss of Gettysburg, the Confederate forces would not travel any further north. From this time onwards, they suffered considerable losses as their resources dwindled. Some historians think that the Civil War may have ended shortly after the Battle of Gettysburg had the Union troops pursued the Confederates more vehemently at the time. This shows there were strategic blunders on both sides and asks a question about the Civil War we’ll never know the answer to: could the Civil War have been ended earlier?
After succeeding in the Western campaigns of the Civil War, Ulysses S. Grant was given command of all the Union armies in 1864. The long-term effects of the blockade and the considerable effort of the Union to mobilize forces and resources were choking the Confederate states.
The Union was winning and the Anaconda Plan was working, but a high cost of life was being paid. Part of what made the Civil War so bloody was the emergence of new technology at the time. The use of railroads by the Union was one of the keys to their victory.
General Grant was an expert at logistics and knew that he had the upper hand when it came to resources. He mobilized troops and resources as fast as he could to overrun the Confederates. Finally, in April 1965, General Lee surrendered to General Grant after Grant had cut off any means of escape.
It was at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865 that the surrender took place and the Civil War ended. This is one of the most established Civil War facts, although some minor skirmishes took place until the last of the Confederate forces surrendered in July.
Like railroads, photography was just emerging as a useful technology at the time of the Civil War. Both sides used photography for propaganda during the war. Newspapers were also becoming more popular during the 1800s.
War photography in many ways began with the Civil War. The cameras at the time, although large by today’s standards, were becoming more portable and less expensive. This allowed more people to risk taking photos in a war zone.
The lower cost of photography also meant that photographs were used for the first time during the Civil War as a way for soldiers to remember their families back home, and for their families to remember them while they were away.
We also see some of the most awful aspects of war in Civil War photography. These haunting photographs of Union and Confederate soldiers stay in our memory and keep us interested in Civil War facts.
The saddest of all facts is that more than half a million soldiers lost their lives fighting in the war. The pictures of bloody battlefields are reminders of how deadly wars are when they are waged on a large scale.
The population of the United States was large enough, and both sides had enough resources and men, to make the Civil War a prolonged conflict. It was the Union’s ability to block the Confederacy from receiving aid and their ability to mobilize troops and resources that won the conflict.
While some interesting Civil War facts can be debated, one thing is for certain — we never want to witness another civil war.
Exploring Interesting and amazing Christopher Columbus facts is a great way to travel back in time and learn about history. Facts about Christopher Columbus for kids are one of the best ways to get kids excited about the discovery of the Americas and the history of the New World.
Many of the Christopher Columbus facts we have are taken from secondary sources that have been confirmed by other sources and historians. Because Columbus lived so long ago, primary evidence of some Christopher Columbus facts has been lost.
One of the most famous explorers of all time, Christopher Columbus set sail from Spain and landed in present day Central America in 1492. More than 500 years later, Christopher Columbus Day is celebrated in the United States, and Christopher Columbus facts continue to intrigue people of all ages.
Christopher Columbus is widely celebrated in the United States, and other parts of the Western World, and his name is taught to kids as one of the Christopher Columbus facts. One of the little known Christopher Columbus facts, however, is that Christopher Columbus was Italian and his name was actually Cristoforo Colombo.
Christopher Columbus’ father was named Domenico Colombo and was a middle-class tradesman. Columbus was born sometime in October of 1451 in what is now part of Italy. The exact date and location of Columbus’ birth are disputed.
One of biggest barriers to establishing Christopher Columbus facts is that he lived 500 years ago. Columbus was not from any significant lineage. He wasn’t directly related to any kings or queens, and precise records of births and deaths weren’t recorded for everyday people at the time.
We use the name Christopher Columbus because it sounds more English than his birth name in Italian. In Spanish speaking countries, Christopher Columbus is known as Cristóbal Colón. The name we use in English came from the Latin, Christophorus Columbus.
Christopher Columbus sailed on many voyages from the time he was 20 years old until his fateful voyage in 1492, when he crossed the Atlantic. Columbus started his career as a business agent, traveling and trading goods on behalf of the wealthy families in Italy at the time.
When Columbus was 25 to 26 years old, he traveled to England and Ireland from Italy. One of the important Christopher Columbus facts to remember is that voyages by sea were very different 500 years ago. What we might consider a small journey now was quite an undertaking in those days.
Sea voyages in the late 1400s and early 1400s lacked many of the modern day conveniences we have now. It took a steadfast individual to deal with poor nutrition, illness, rough weather and many days away from land. Based on his many sea voyages, one of the clear Christopher Columbus facts is that he was a steadfast person who could stand up to the rough life at sea.
Portugal lies on the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and offers an ideal place to set sail for the British Isles, the African Coast and the Mediterranean. For a seafaring trader like Columbus, Portugal was an excellent place to live.
In 1477, Columbus sailed to Lisbon where he met his brother Bartholomew, or Bartolomeo, and continued to work as a trader for wealthy merchant families. Columbus soon settled in Lisbon, Portugal. He married Filipa Moniz Perestrelo and some time in 1479 or 1480, his son Diego Columbus was born.
One of the more inspiring Christopher Columbus facts that shows Columbus may have been a genius is that educated himself. This is also one of the inspiring Christopher Columbus facts for kids. Columbus was only the son of a middle-class tradesman and he began his career as a humble apprentice. However, he never stopped learning, and continued to advance his position in life.
Columbus taught himself three new languages: Latin, Portuguese, and Castilian. Like Benjamin Franklin and Abraham Lincoln, Columbus read many books. He read books by Marco Polo, the adventurer; Ptolemy, the astronomer; and Pliny, the philosopher.
As Columbus read, he would often take notes in the margins of the books. We would laugh at some of his observations today because science and knowledge have advanced so much in the last 500 years. However, one of the clear Christopher Columbus facts is that Columbus wanted to learn as much as possible about the world around him. Perhaps it was this desire to learn more about the world that gave Columbus the inspiration to cross the Atlantic.
Columbus studied the Bible intensely, along with the other books that he read. Like Martin Luther King, Jr., Columbus often quoted the Bible in his writings.
Possibly one of the least known Christopher Columbus facts is that he published a book of religious writings at the end of his lifetime. In 1501 and 1502, Columbus wrote The Book of Prophecies, a collection of apocalyptic religious writings. These sorts of works were common during the late Middle Ages, or medieval period of time.
File this one under economic Christopher Columbus facts: spices, which came mostly from Asia, were a highly valuable commodity in the late 1400s and early 1500s. The trading and transport of spices was conducted along the Silk Road from India and China to Europe.
Spices were not as common in Columbus’ time as they are today. To have spices for your meal was a sign of nobility or luxury. People who owned spices kept them locked up in chests with keys, treating them with equal value as gold.
The Turkish Empire conquered Constantinople and established rule. The Turks installed their government and changed the name of this important city on the Silk Road to Istanbul. After the Turkish Empire took control of Constantinople in 1453, there was a traffic jam on the Silk Road. The passage of goods was no longer as easy as it had been, and the high value of spices gave traders an economic incentive to look for a detour.
Many people wondered whether there was a way to go around the Silk Road. People began looking for an ocean route to the source of the spices in Asia. Wealthy merchants and royal families funded the expeditions of sailors like Columbus. Whoever discovered the ocean route first would have exclusive access to the spices at lower prices. For the wealthy merchants and royal families, funding sailors like Columbus was an investment. The source of the spices was in and around what is now modern day India. At the time, the Europeans referred to this area as the Indies.
As early as 1485, Columbus had approached John II, the King of Portugal, for funding to search for an ocean route to the Indies. Columbus had a radical idea, which was to travel west to reach the Indies in the east. At the time, it was not commonly known or widely accepted that the Earth was round. This is one of the best-known Christopher Columbus facts: Columbus believed the Earth was round but people thought his idea was ridiculous.
Contrary to popular belief, Columbus wasn’t the first person to suggest that the Earth was round. Although it wasn’t widely acknowledged or agreed with at the time, people were aware of the theory. Columbus was suggesting that the Earth was round and that it was small enough that he could find a faster way to Asia by sailing west instead of east.
Whether people believed the Earth was round or not, it isn’t one of the surprising Christopher Columbus facts that people thought his idea was a long shot at the time. What made his plan so daring was the distance Columbus would have to travel. The people who doubted Columbus were in fact right, and he underestimated the circumference of the Earth.
Christopher Columbus wasn’t the only sailor looking for an ocean route to Asia. By 1488, Bartolomeu Dias had reached the southern tip of Africa in his own quest for a way to bypass the Silk Road to Asia. Dias had succeeded in getting funding from the King of Portugal to search for an ocean route to Asia. Dias’ plan was to travel south and then east to sail around Africa.
Until the Suez Canal was built, Dias’ route would be the fastest ocean route to Asia from Europe. However, what Columbus discovered would turn out to be far more valuable than the spices of the Indies.
By 1492, Columbus had tried to gain support from merchants in Italy and the King of Portugal for his plan to travel west to reach the Indies. It’s one of the much less known Christopher Columbus facts that Columbus also sent his brother Bartholomew to seek help from the King of England. Wherever he tried, no one was interested.
Finally, Columbus received a reception from the King and Queen of Spain. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella had recently married and controlled a large amount of territory in Spain. It’s another of the little known Christopher Columbus facts that Columbus presented his idea to the monarchs as early as 1486.
A committee of advisors who worked for Isabella reviewed Columbus’ idea and said that he had underestimated the circumference of the Earth and how long it would take to reach Asia by traveling west. Ferdinand and Isabella took the advice of their committee and did not give him funding for a voyage. Columbus must have made an impression, however, as King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella gave Columbus an annual salary and lodging.
It wasn’t until 1492 that King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella agreed to fund Columbus’ voyage. Another of the inspiring Christopher Columbus facts is that he worked tirelessly to gain support for his idea. Other people did not believe him, and he may have been wrong, but he continued to work hard for what he believed in. It took the skill of a diplomat and the showmanship of a salesman to convince the King and Queen of Spain to fund his voyage.
“In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue”, is one of the most repeated Christopher Columbus facts. Columbus departed from Spain on August 3, 1492. Many people were uncertain that he would return.
Columbus’ voyage consisted of three ships: the Niña, which was the nickname of the Santa Clara, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. It was a lookout on the Pinta who first saw land on October 12, 1492, and alerted the captain of the Pinta, who signaled Columbus on his ship. He later claimed that he was the first to spot land a few hours earlier. Columbus not telling the truth about who saw land first is one of the first disheartening Christopher Columbus facts to emerge.
Christopher Columbus landed in the area that is now known as the Caribbean. Columbus named the island he landed on San Salvador. While the exact island he landed on is not known, it is certain that he landed in what we now know as the Bahamas.
Columbus discovered more than land – he met people he had never seen before. These were the Native Americans, or the indigenous people who lived in the Caribbean. Another one of the disheartening Christopher Columbus facts is that he immediately thought to colonize the lands and the inhabitants.
Columbus took many of the native people he encountered prisoner. The native tribes he met were mostly peaceful, except for one group that resisted. Columbus was a sea faring trader and his goal was to ensure the economic success of the voyage. He found gold among the native people and tried to learn where they had gotten it. This was the beginning of poor treatment of the native people by Columbus and later explorers who would follow him.
Columbus insisted that he had landed in the Indies, naming the inhabitants Indians. To this day the Caribbean is also known as the West Indies. While many people know that Columbus landed in the Americas in 1492, it’s one of the lesser-known Christopher Columbus facts that he made three more trips to the New World.
The New World was the name given to the area that Columbus had discovered. This area is what we now know as the Americas: North America, Central America, and South America. As luck would have it, Columbus landed right in the middle, near Central America.
Although Columbus insisted it was the Indies, there were strange new plants and animals, and the customs of the native people were unknown. This led people to call the land he discovered the New World. After Columbus discovered the Americas, an era of exploration and colonization began that would forever change life on Earth.
Columbus made three trips, with his final trip in 1503. When agreeing to fund the voyage, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella had promised that Columbus would be governor of any new lands that he discovered. Recent studies have revealed some of the most shocking Christopher Columbus facts. For example, in 1500, Columbus was arrested and taken back in chains from the New World for his tyranny as governor.
Reports had circulated, and were confirmed by numerous witnesses, that Columbus and his brothers, including Bartholomew, were brutal in their rule of the land and people they discovered in the New World. Columbus and his brothers would routinely torture and kill native people.
The brutal treatment of people by Columbus when he was governor is one of the saddest Christopher Columbus facts because it changes the nature of his legacy. We no longer see Christopher Columbus as an inspiring figure. Perhaps the saddest fact is that this type of brutality would characterize the way European settlers treated native people in the Americas in the years to come.
Germany Facts can teach us a lot about the history of this part of Central Europe. Germanic tribes occupied the area that the Romans would go on to call Germania. After the fall of the Roman Empire in Rome, the center of power moved to Germany, where it stayed until the 1800s.
The 1900s give us some of the worst facts about facts. The horror of the Holocaust still shocks us today, and Germany suffered heavy losses in both World War 1 and World War 2. Many Germans were killed, and many atrocities were committed by Germany under the power of Hitler and the Nazi Party.
Germany was divided into East and West Germany after World War 2. In the 1990s, Germany was reunified, and more positive Germany fun facts have continued to surface since then. Germany is the 5th largest economy in the world, the most populous country in Europe, and plays a central role in the European Union.
In an effort to increase Europe’s role in the global economy and further distance itself from communism, Germany played an important role in forming the European Union, or EU. One of the Germany facts relating to the EU is that Germany introduced the European currency, the Euro. Germany’s role in the European Union teaches us important facts about Germany about life in the country today.
The European Union grew out of trade unions that were established in the 1950s. The goal of the European Union is to facilitate the free movement of goods and people throughout Europe. By creating a more fluid economy between the different European states, the European Union hopes to provide Europe with a larger role in the global economy.
Germany plays a central role in the European Union today. As the most populous country in Europe, and Europe’s economic powerhouse, many EU decisions impact life in Germany. Similarly, many decisions in Germany impact life throughout the rest of the European Union.
The early history of Germany teaches us many Germany facts, and tells us a lot about the history of Europe as a whole. Fossils discovered in the Neander valley in Germany give us the first evidence of non-modern humans. These Neanderthals were a different type of human than we are, and lived in Europe and Asia approximately 40,000-60,000 years ago. Neanderthals share many traits with modern humans but are considered a different species.
Tribes of people occupied the area now known as Germany for thousands of years. During ancient history, these tribes came into conflict with the Roman Empire. It was the Romans who first described this area as Germania, and the inhabitants of the region became known as Germans. It’s one of the interesting facts about Germany that the Germans did not actually name themselves. The Germanic tribes that lived in this area gained power over time, and eventually took land from the Roman Empire as it declined from 200 – 400 AD.
One of the important facts about germany for kids is that the Germanic tribes grew to become kingdoms and went on to assume an important role in the Holy Roman Empire as the center of influence moved from Rome to Germany. The Holy Roman Empire comprised of German princes and popes existed from 800 AD to the 1800s in some form or another. The Holy Roman Empire in Germany finally broke apart in the war between two kingdoms in Germany: the Austrian Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia.
As part of its move towards the future, the current German government has enacted many laws and practices to encourage the use of renewable energy. Germany is proving its new role as a global citizen by leading the way in using environmentally friendly ways of generating energy. Germany is going green!
As a result of Germany’s efforts, their greenhouse gas emissions are falling. The final goal of the German plan for renewable energy is to eliminate reliance on coal and other non-renewable sources of energy. Germany is pursuing this goal through renewable energy, greater energy efficiency, and more sustainable growth. The future looks bright for Germany!
Some of the most awful Germany facts surround Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. The Nazi Party came to power in 1933 when Hitler was made Chancellor of Germany. The economic conditions in Germany and the harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles, whether real or imagined, led Germans towards totalitarianism.
Hitler was given power over all of Germany. He even had the soldiers in the German army declare their allegiance to him personally instead of to Germany. Germany created a bureaucracy of war and terror. Hitler and the Nazi Party committed what many consider the greatest crime of the 1900s: the Holocaust.
The Nazi’s crimes began as segregation against Jews, other minorities, and political dissidents, and ended in an effort to kill all the Jews in Europe. Over six million Jews, and over 10 million civilians in total, were killed as a result of the actions of Hitler, the Nazi Party, and the people of Germany who ran a bureaucratic killing machine. These are the worst Germany facts of all, and these facts about Germany continue to cast a shadow over the country 70 years on.
Germany continued to consolidate power and, by 1900, the policies of Otto von Bismarck had expanded German influence and territory across Europe. Bismarck served under Wilhem I. After Wilhem II took power, he took a more aggressive approach to expanding the power of Germany. This is one of the more important Germany facts, as this would lead to conflicts within Europe, and eventually war.
The crown prince of Austria, a country that bordered Germany, was assassinated in 1914. This led to a series of events that resulted in World War 1. It was a bloody conflict, and ushered in the era of modern warfare. World War 1 provides some of the saddest Germany facts. Roughly two million soldiers lost their lives during World War 1.
Germany lost World War 1 to the Allied Powers that included the United States, France and Great Britain. In 1918, the German Revolution occurred. Wilhem II and the remaining German princes gave up power, and Germany became a republic. The German people were ready for a change after suffering heavy losses in a war that was fought for a monarchy.
Germany was part of the Axis Powers during World War 2. They invaded countries across Europe. Germany occupied France, Austria, Belgium, and most of continental Europe. Mussolini’s fascist Italy was also part of the Axis powers, and controlled additional parts of Europe, as well as parts of North Africa. It seemed that the Axis Powers of Germany, Italy and Japan were destined to win the war.
The Allied Forces fighting the Axis Powers gathered all their troops for a massive invasion in 1944, called D-Day. This was the beginning of the end for Germany and the Axis Powers, as the tide started to turn in favor of the Allied Powers in World War 2.
Germany and the Axis Powers had a strong start to the war, but they were overcome in the end. After D-Day, Germany was fighting a war on two fronts: they were fighting with the United States and Britain on the Western Front, and fighting with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or USSR, on the Eastern Front. When Germany lost World War 2, it lost to both the Soviets and to the Western Powers.
Relations broke down between the Soviets and Western Powers at the end of World War 2, leading to what would be called the Cold War. It happened so fast, that the occupying forces in Germany never left! This is another one of the important Germany facts. The Soviets and the Western Powers continued to occupy Germany and the city of Berlin after World War 2 ended.
Eventually, an agreement was reached that would become one of the interesting facts about Germany that would define life in Germany for the next 50 years. The agreement involved splitting Germany into two parts. One part was capitalist West Germany, which was supported by the Western Powers of the United Kingdom, the United States, France, and other countries. The other part was East Germany, which was supported by the USSR. The USSR also retained additional European territory it had acquired during World War 2, and made those countries states in the USSR.
The main city in Germany, Berlin, was split in half too! This is one of the unusual facts about Germany for kids. It sounds absurd to split a city in half, and it made life absurdly difficult for people living in Berlin, especially for families who had relatives in both halves of the city. The city was divided into East and West Berlin. As the Cold War continued, a wall was built between the two halves of the city to prevent travel, and was known as the Berlin Wall. All across Europe, the dividing line between the USSR and capitalist Europe was referred to as the Iron Curtain.
Some of the interesting facts about Germany teach us about the amazing number of innovations and inventions that come from Germany. While not exactly an invention, one of the important historical facts about Germany for kids is that Martin Luther innovated Christianity when he started the Protestant Reformation in Germany in the 1500s. This would eventually lead to the great variety of Christian sects that exist in the world today, and remain separate from the Catholic Church.
An amazing number of technological innovations and inventions came from Germany and provide more interesting Germany facts. Gutenberg built his printing press in Germany, and many point to this as being part of what accelerated the Reformation. More recently, in the 1800s and 1900s, X-Rays were discovered in Germany, and the internal combustion engine was invented there.
During the early 1900s, Albert Einstein, who was born in Germany, lived in Germany when he elaborated his theory of relativity to include gravity. Einstein became a United States Citizen in 1940 after immigrating to the United States in 1933 when Hitler took power in Germany. During World War 2, the German war machine produced many innovations, including the first space rocket, and magnetic tape for recording sound.
The Treaty of Versailles was signed in 1919 and provides us with more important Germany facts. This treaty was signed by the newly formed League of Nations, and placed a set of strict conditions on Germany. These conditions included disarmament, and reparations that were to be paid to the countries in Europe which Germany had invaded.
Some people say the conditions of the treaty were too harsh, and crippled the German economy. The equivalent value of the reparations demanded of Germany at the time is $440 billion USD today – ouch! Other scholars have said that the conditions of the treaty were not harsh enough to cause Germany to restructure itself in a way that would result in long-term peace. Germany never got the scolding it needed: it should’ve been $1 trillion in reparations! This is one of the interesting facts that has recently been under more debate.
Whether or not the economic troubles of Germany during the 1920s and 1930s can be directly attributed to conditions of the treaty, the Great Depression crushed any growth that was occurring in the Germany economy after World War 1.
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When Germany was rebuilt after World War 2, West Germany slowly grew its economy to become one of the largest in Europe. East Germany was initially boosted by the rapid industrialization of the USSR under Stalin. However, over time, the flaws in the Soviet system led to the decline of the East German and Soviet economies. By the 1980s, East Germans lived significantly poorer lives than their counterparts in West Germany.
During this time, many East Germans risked their lives to flee to West Germany for better living conditions. To do so, they had to be smuggled past intense border fortifications, including the Berlin Wall.
West Germany and East Germany were re-united in Oct. 3, 1990, followed by the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The German economy has continued to grow, and is now generally considered the 5th largest economy in the world. As a result of reunification, Germany is now the most populous country in Europe.
The legacy of the Soviet era still has an impact on people’s lives in Germany. The Soviet occupation is one of the Germany facts that changed Germany forever. People in East Germany are still, on average, poorer than those in West Germany. As a federal republic, Germany has been practicing a policy of sending tax revenues from the former West Germany to the former East Germany. It is to help rebuild the economies in those German states. This plan is set to continue until nearly 2020 – 25 years after reunification!
Tornado facts capture our attention as they teach us about the raw power of nature. Interesting facts about tornado for kids are a great way to get them excited about science. Tornadoes fascinate us so much that there are even tornado chasers who track down these destructive storms to get more tornado alley facts.
Tornadoes don’t last for very long, so capturing tornado fun facts through scientific measurements is not easy. The tornado chasers put their lives on the line to help us learn more about tornadoes.
Facts about Tornadoes come in all shapes and sizes, much like tornadoes themselves. These facts help us protect ourselves against these powerful storms, and to get better at predicting when and where tornadoes will occur.
Perhaps it’s the spinning motion of tornadoes that captures our attention. The fact that they spin is the most basic of tornado fun facts. Tornadoes are sometimes called twisters or cyclones, and both of these names refer to the spinning and contorting nature of the rapidly swirling air that defines a tornado.
One of the other well-known tornado facts is that tornadoes connect from the ground to the clouds in the sky. Tornadoes connect the ground to cumulonimbus and cumulus clouds, which are the cloud types typically associated with storms.
Some famous movies feature scenes with tornadoes, and we often think of the Midwest United States when we think of tornadoes. The picture of a tornado moving through farmland in the Midwest is the popular iconic image of a tornado.
It’s one of the surprising tornado facts for kids that tornadoes occur all over the world. Tornadoes have been witnessed on every continent except Antarctica, and also occur over the ocean.
Scientists aren’t in agreement about whether or not a tornado over the ocean should be considered a tornado. It is often referred to as a waterspout. This is one of the interesting facts about tornado that is up for debate.
While tornadoes occur all over the world, our popular image of the tornado is in fact not far from the truth. Most tornadoes occur in a particular part of the Midwest United States, which has come to be known as Tornado Alley. Tornadoes and tornadoes facts call this part of the world home!
In Spanish, there are two words that sound like the word tornado. The word for “thunderstorm” is tronada and the word for “to turn” is tornar. Some people have speculated that the word tornado was formed by combining these two words.
It is possible that this is not one of the tornado facts, and that the word tornado was actually derived directly from tronada. Whatever the case, it is certain that the word came from the Spanish language.
We may sometimes see shapes of clouds that look like tornadoes. Or, we may see a formation at the bottom of a cloud that looks like a funnel. Unless this funnel-shaped column of air touches the ground, it is not considered a true tornado.
Powerful thunderstorms are responsible for generating tornadoes. The more powerful a thunderstorm is, the more powerful a tornado it creates. Tornadoes channel the energy from the storm into rapidly rotating winds.
Some of the most powerful tornadoes come from the most powerful storms in history. Hurricane Katrina spun off a tornado and caused severe damage to an airplane hangar in the Florida Keys. The storm front from Hurricane Katrina caused additional tornadoes across the Eastern part of the United States.
Some storms spin off more than one tornado. When a storm spins off more than one tornado, these tornadoes are considered part of a tornado family. These multiple tornadoes can occur at the same time, or one tornado after another can be created by a storm.
When a large storm front, such as the one generated by Hurricane Katrina, creates a series of tornadoes, this is considered a tornado outbreak. The storm front from Hurricane Katrina was so powerful that it still had enough energy to generate tornadoes as far north as Pennsylvania in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States.
Supercells are a particular type of thunderstorm. These storms have cyclones of air in them, though the cyclones are a few miles up in the air and don’t always touch the ground. The cyclones in supercells are known as mesocyclones.
Tornadoes develop when the supercell starts generating large amounts of rain. This sudden rainfall pulls the air around the rain down with it, and pulls the mesocyclone down towards the ground.
The swirling mass of air from the mesocyclone sinks through the cloud and, when it breaches the bottom of the cloud, we see a funnel cloud. When the bottom of the funnel cloud touches the ground, this spinning column of air has become a tornado.
One of the most surprising tornado facts is that not all tornadoes can be seen. The dust and water vapor picked up by the swirling air makes the tornado apparent. Because of the way tornadoes are formed, and the fact that the swirling air causes condensation of water vapor, most tornadoes are visible to us.
A lot of fun tornado facts are about the names given to tornadoes. Tornadoes are given different names based on their shape. Some tornadoes are short and round; these are called stovepipe tornadoes. Other large tornadoes can take on a large V-shape, and are called wedges, or wedge tornadoes. When a tornado loses strength, it starts to appear wispy and more twisted, and these tornadoes are known as rope tornadoes.
While a rope tornado may appear wispy, it’s one of the established tornado facts that the average tornado in the United States is roughly 500 feet, or 150 meters, in diameter. Get ready for some mind-blowing tornado facts: tornadoes can be over one mile, or 1.5 kilometers, wide! In Nebraska on May 22, 2004, there was a tornado that was over 2.5 miles, or over four kilometers, wide at its base!
A lot of tornado facts are concerned with the appearance of a tornado because of its awesome and overwhelming nature. Seeing a column of air dramatically rising from the ground all the way up to the sky is an incredible experience. While a lot of attention is paid to what tornadoes look like, there are some lesser-known facts about what tornadoes sound like.
One of the amazing facts is that tornadoes make infrasound. Infrasound is sound that is below 20 Hz, which is below the normal range of human hearing. When most people hear a tornado, it sounds like a whooshing sound, or the sound of air rushing. Some people have compared the sound to that of a train.
It’s often difficult to hear the sound of a tornado over the accompanying thunderstorm that is the source of the tornado. The rain and thunder from the storm may make it difficult to hear a tornado.
It’s one of the ironic tornado facts that the sound of a tornado is not a reliable way for people to detect tornadoes. However, the infrasound created by a tornado can be used to detect tornadoes with the use of special audio equipment. Scientists are exploring ways to use infrasound as a means of detecting tornadoes in order to provide early warning to people who may be in a tornado’s path.
Tornadoes move with their thunderstorm clouds because they are connected at the top to the cyclone of air within the cloud. The area where the tornado connects to the ground moves across the land as the cloud moves with the storm above. The ground the tornado travels across is considered the path of the tornado.
This path is where the destruction occurs. As a tornado moves, it hits anything in its path on the ground with a swirling mass of air. The tornado also carries with it any dust and debris that it has picked up. The swirling mass of a tornado can contain rocks, sticks and other dense objects, moving rapidly through the air.
When these objects and the swirling air of the tornado impact a structure that people have built, such as a building, or house, the effects can be devastating. A powerful tornado can completely destroy a house, leaving it looking like nothing but a pile of wood!
Some of the saddest tornado facts occur when people are caught in the path of a tornado. The best way to avoid injury is to evacuate people from the path of the tornado. However, tornadoes form quickly and the path a tornado takes is not easy to predict. When adequate shelter is not available, people sometimes die as a result of injuries caused by a tornado.
Get ready for another of the mind-blowing tornado fun facts. Tornadoes can travel over 100 miles with a storm! Storms often generate one tornado after another, and these multiple tornadoes are sometimes mistaken for one continuous tornado. However, tornadoes traveling over 100 miles have been confirmed, including one tornado in 1925 that traveled over 200 miles!
We saved the most amazing tornado facts for last. Tornadoes cause so much destruction because the wind speeds in the cyclone of air are incredibly high.
The average wind speed of a tornado is over 100 miles per hour, or over 150 kilometers per hour! Some tornadoes have wind speeds over 300 miles per hour, or over 450 kilometers per hour! That is faster than hurricane force winds.
To help establish tornado facts, scientists use different scales to rate tornadoes. The Fujita Scale is a rating of the destructive power of the tornado. Because many tornado facts are only revealed after the storm has passed, scientists evaluate the damage, and rate the tornado, on the Fujita Scale from F0 to F5.
There is also an Enhanced Fujita Scale, which is an updated version of the original Fujita scale. For both of these, a scale F5 or EF5 is the highest rating. A tornado of this magnitude can rip a house right off its foundation!
The TORRO scale or T-scale was developed by the Tornado and Storm Research Organization in the United Kingdom. This scale works on a measure from T1 to T11. Unlike the Fujita scale, the TORRO scale is based on the wind speed of the tornado, and not the destruction it causes.
Of course, the higher the wind speed, the more likely a tornado is to cause significant damage. A tornado ranked highly on one scale is also ranked highly on the other scale. The subtle differences have to do with the different gradations of tornadoes. While some argue about which scale is better, one of our tornado facts is certain: we wouldn’t want to be in the path of any tornado that is ranked high on either scale!
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From the 1950s onward, the United States began to develop a series of tornado warning systems in the Midwest, where most of the tornadoes in the world occur. In 1953, a particular type of radar signature called a hook echo was associated with the thunderstorms that produce tornadoes.
Today, tornado facts for predicting tornadoes are still found with radar. Scientists are getting better at understanding which radar signatures are associated with tornadoes and the thunderstorms that create them. Tornadoes move so quickly that they can sometimes form before the data from radar showing the tornado’s activity has even been retrieved and processed by computers!
Two good eyes are still the best method for detecting tornadoes. In the United States, there are storm spotters who are trained to recognize the signs of severe weather that could lead to a tornado.
These storm spotters are part of a program called Skywarn that trains local law enforcement, rescue workers and ordinary citizens to help detect and report tornadoes.
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As destructive as tornadoes are, some people chase tornadoes. Most of these people are scientists who are trying to learn more about tornadoes. Some of these storm chasers are thrill-seekers. Most of these people are a combination of both – in other words, they are thrill-seeking scientists!
While this is not one of the tornado facts we should encourage our kids to explore, it’s inspiring to know that people are risking their lives to help save others. The fact that storm chasers gather help scientists improve their ability to detect tornadoes. As tornado detection gets better, more people can be evacuated sooner in the event of a tornado, and more lives can be saved.
Tornadoes are an awesome force of nature. Tornadoes can have winds up to 300 miles per hour and can be over 2.5 miles wide! These large swirling masses of air, water and debris cause serious damage when their path carries them through areas where people live and work.
Our common image of the tornado appearing over farmland is actually one of the true tornado alley facts. Most tornadoes occur in the Midwest of the United States. Efforts to learn more facts about tornados, including improving our ability to detect tornadoes, have been focused in the Midwest for this reason.
Brave storm chasers and storm spotters are part of the warning system for tornadoes. Despite the many tornado facts we know, predicting tornadoes remains a difficult task. People spotting tornadoes early on, and informing authorities immediately, is still our best line of defense against these powerhouses of nature.
Nelson Mandela facts teach us a lot about the fight for equality in South Africa. Facts about Nelson Mandela fascinate people of all ages, and there is plenty for adults and kids alike to learn.
Interesting facts about Nelson Mandela also teach us about the system of apartheid that existed in South Africa. Apartheid was a set of laws and a system of segregation that kept Black people separate from White people in public places. Apartheid legally enforced the culture of racism that existed in South Africa.
Nelson Mandela fun facts are inspiring. They tell us about Mandela, the struggle of South Africans, and the people’s eventual success in ending apartheid. Nelson Mandela facts inspire people of all ages and are a great way to teach kids about the importance of equality for all people, regardless of race or background.
One of our first surprising Nelson Mandela facts is that he was born into a royal family, that of the Thembu people in Africa. Mandela’s father was a nobleman from the Madiba clan. The Madiba clan was the clan of kings from the Thembu people.
Up until the 1800s, the Thembu people had their own independent kingdom. The Thembu were conquered by the British and put under colonial rule. At the time Mandela was born, his homeland was under colonial rule.
Another of the surprising Nelson Mandela facts is that he was a lawyer. When we think of someone who is a leader for equal rights, we don’t often think of a lawyer. Because Mandela was from a privileged family, he had the advantage of access to education.
While attending school at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, Mandela became a political activist. He joined the African National Congress, or ANC, and began to gain recognition working against colonial oppression.
Nelson Mandela was not afraid to break the law to gain equal treatment for Black people in South Africa. Like Martin Luther King, Jr., Mandela was often arrested for working to bring equal rights to people.
Mandela continued with his political activities and rose through the ranks of the ANC. In 1948, the South African National Party was formed. The party was openly racist and, after taking office, the government began putting the system of apartheid in effect.
Another of the surprising Nelson Mandela facts is that he became a more militant activist in the late 1940s and early 1950s. When Mandela first started his political activities, he sought a non-violent approach to change the unjust laws in South Africa. Mandela’s changing perspective reflected the changing attitude of Black people in South Africa who were opposed to unjust laws.
The African National Congress, which began as an activist group, also became more militant. The ANC began advocating for direct defiance to the system of apartheid. Mandela was arrested and imprisoned many times throughout the period from 1948 to 1952.
By 1952, Mandela was ordered to not speak to more than one person at a time in public and was prevented from attending meetings of groups of people. As a result, he had to step down from his position of leadership in the ANC.
Like Abraham Lincoln, one of the more surprising Nelson Mandela facts is that he was also a small business owner, with his own law firm. In 1953, Mandela opened the only African-run law firm in South Africa with Oliver Tambo.
Mandela and Tambo often defended Black people who had been mistreated by authorities. Because of this, the authorities forced Mandela and Tambo to move their offices to a more remote location, and they lost their clientele.
This is one of the Nelson Mandela facts that teaches us about apartheid. In 1953, the South African National Party was beginning a series of relocations of Black people. They forced people to move from their homes, give up their land, and move into segregated districts that were classified by race.
Nelson Mandela increasingly believed that the only way to change the unjust laws in South Africa was to change the government in South Africa. With the ANC and other groups working for equality, Mandela participated in the 1955 Congress of the People.
The Congress of the People called for a non-segregated democratic state in South Africa. In December of 1956, Mandela was arrested for high treason against the South African government.
Mandela and other leaders working for equal rights in South Africa narrowly missed being convicted after having the judges from the trial removed for their affiliation to the governing South African National Party.
As part of the apartheid system, Black people were required to carry passes that identified them to authorities. In 1960, Mandela, with the ANC, and other groups including the Pan-African Congress, or PAC, protested the passes by publicly burning them.
During these protests, police shot and killed 69 protesters and declared martial law. Nelson Mandela also burned his pass to show that he was part of the protest. It’s one of the Nelson Mandela facts that shows he was a great leader and willing to put himself at risk for the cause he believed in.
Under martial law, Mandela and others were imprisoned without cause. After being released, Mandela disguised himself as a chauffeur and toured the country, organizing groups of resistance as part of his plan for the ANC.
Mandela formed a group called Umkhonto we Sizwe, or MK, that was intended as the military wing of the African National Congress. The group, whose name means Spear of the Nation planned acts of sabotage.
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Many of the members of MK were communists. Mandela denied being a communist at the time. In 2011, historians established more Nelson Mandela facts that showed he was a member of the communist party in South Africa.
The MK and the South Africa Communist Party, or SACP, planned acts of sabotage against the government. Nelson Mandela gave strict instructions to try not to harm anyone. The plan was to disrupt everyday life by bombing power plants, telephone lines, and other infrastructure.
Despite Mandela’s instructions, it’s one of the surprising Nelson Mandela facts that he was planning acts of sabotage and gathering money for weapons when he was arrested again and imprisoned for a much longer time than before.
Perhaps the best known of Nelson Mandela facts is that he was in prison for a very long time. He was arrested for the final time in 1963, and this arrest resulted in him being imprisoned for over 25 years.
Shortly after his arrest, police seized some documents from an MK location that established some Nelson Mandela facts, including his role in the plans to sabotage the government. Mandela delivered a three-hour speech as part of his defense. In his speech, he said that history would prove him right. Despite an incredibly eloquent speech in his defense, Mandela was sentenced to life in prison for attempting to overthrow the government.
Some of the most inspiring Nelson Mandela facts come about as a result of his time in prison. Nelson Mandela endured some very harsh conditions while in prison, yet continued to educate himself and stay active. This is also one of the inspiring Nelson Mandela facts for kids. Despite difficult circumstances, Nelson Mandela refused to give up fighting for equal rights.
Nelson Mandela spent 18 years on Robben Island in a prison doing hard labor, including breaking rocks and working in a lime quarry. His cell had very little comfort, and Mandela slept on a straw mat on a concrete floor.
Over the next 10 years on Robben Island, from 1965 to 1975, Mandela’s conditions gradually improved, and he was given more outside contact. However, he was still living in harsh circumstances. Mandela was banned from studying after pages from his autobiography were discovered in his cell. After this happened, he spent his time gardening. As soon as he was allowed to, he resumed his studies.
Mandela continued to be politically active. He participated in groups and discussions in the prison and communicated in secret with groups outside of the prison. Through his contact with the outside world, including his letters, some world leaders began to call for Mandela’s release.
From 1980 onwards, Nelson Mandela’s case became a subject of global interest. Like other Nelson Mandela facts, the interest in Nelson Mandela’s case was connected to increasing global awareness of apartheid.
As people around the world became aware of apartheid, governments began to put economic sanctions on South Africa. The sanctions hurt South Africa’s economy and caused issues for the ruling South African National Party. The sanctions hurt South Africa from the outside, while the ANC was also conducting attacks on the government from inside of South Africa.
The South African National Party was under too much pressure. The unjust system of apartheid was collapsing, and the government would not be able to keep power for much longer. By 1990, Mandela was over 70 years old and it had been more than 25 years since he had been out of prison. The ANC continued to grow in strength and numbers while Mandela was in prison, despite the organization being outlawed by the government.
On February 2, 1990, in a surprise move, F.W. de Klerk, who was the President of South Africa, released Mandela and lifted the ban that had been placed on the ANC.
Mandela was steadfast in his views about achieving equality when he was released from prison. It’s another of the amazing Nelson Mandela facts that, after his release, Mandela said that the ANC would use violence, as necessary, to achieve their goals. Nelson Mandela gave a speech after being released from prison saying that he was committed to peace and reconciliation, but that the ANC and Black people reserved the right to defend themselves against apartheid. It was clear apartheid would have to end for South Africa to have peace.
The government in South Africa did not give up easily. Violence between the government and activists continued in South Africa after Nelson Mandela’s release. Nelson Mandela held negotiations with de Klerk to end apartheid and bring true democracy to South Africa. The negotiations resulted in all people being given the right to vote. As a result of Mandela’s work, the first truly democratic elections were held in South Africa in 1994. After the public elections, the National Assembly elected Nelson Mandela as the first Black President of South Africa. This historical fact is one of the most inspiring of Nelson Mandela facts. After spending over 25 years in prison, Nelson Mandela became President of South Africa within just four years of his release!
After Mandela took power, more Nelson Mandela facts were established when he published his autobiography in 1994. South Africa was more peaceful, and apartheid had ended. However, the task of rebuilding the country after apartheid has proven difficult and continues to this day.
The system of unjust and unfair laws was abolished from South Africa and Mandela and the ANC were successful in their fight for equal rights. Nelson Mandela was a fearless leader who underwent the hardship of prison to see more equal rights for everyone. His story is inspiring for both adults and for kids. Learning Nelson Mandela facts teaches us that everyone has the power to make a difference.
Fun facts about George Washington show that he was a natural leader. He never actively sought to be Commander-in-Chief, or President. However, when the circumstances required, and the time was right, he stepped up and took command.
George Washington facts show that he never shied away from a fight. However, he did not immediately want to fight the British. It was only after what he considered British violations of human rights that he took action and became an active part in the War for Independence in America and later the leader of the armed forces.
George Washington was a practical leader, and this showed in his ability to manage the affairs of his estate and to conduct business as the 1st President of the United States. He always acted honorably and with good council. George Washington might have been a king. Instead he served two terms as President, and returned to life as an ordinary citizen, showing humility. Or, perhaps he simply wanted to get back to Mount Vernon, where he always took an active role, often working right alongside his farmhands.
When we want to start to examining George Washington facts, we often begin by looking at his ancestry to see how long his family lived in the Americas. George Washington was of British descent, and his family arrived in the colonies in 1657. His great-grandfather John Washington moved the family from England to the Colony of Virginia in what was then the British Colonies in America.
George Washington facts about his youth show that his family started with moderate resources but, as he grew up, became a prosperous and prominent family in Virginia. Washington spent much of his time as a youth working on farms and, by the time he was a teenager, he had mastered growing tobacco, raising livestock and surveying property.
George Washington facts tell us that he was not poor as a youth; however he was not born with a silver spoon in his mouth. When Washington was 11 years old, his father died, leaving George’s half-brother to become the head of the family estate. Washington’s half-brother, Lawrence, gave him a good upbringing and also increased the prominence and prosperity of the Washington family and their holdings.
By the time he was 17, Washington was appointed as an official surveyor in Culpeper County. George Washington facts show that he continued in this role for 2 years. It was this experience that enabled him to put the lessons of his youth into practice, and gave him the resourcefulness to make the transition into adulthood.
George Washington facts show that George Washington would need all the resourcefulness he had gathered during his experiences as a surveyor. Sadly, Lawrence, Washington’s older half-brother who raised him, died from tuberculosis. Even more saddening, Lawrence’s baby daughter died 2 months later. George Washington was left in charge of the family estate, which consisted of over 1,000 acres. He was only 20 years old.
George Washington remained dedicated throughout his life to his family’s holdings in Virginia, which came to be known as Mount Vernon. He would continue to uphold farming as a respectable way of earning a living, and slowly increased the holdings of Mount Vernon to 8,000 acres! This is one of the fun facts about George Washington for kids, and shows how much a young person can do when they are responsible and hard working. Imagine being in charge of an 8,000-acre estate!
George Washington facts make it clear he had a natural talent for leadership. He deftly managed his family’s large estate at just 20 years old. Virginia’s Lieutenant Governor appointed Washington as a major in the Virginia militia in recognition of his leadership abilities. A short time later, Washington would be ordered to deliver a message that would change his life, as well as the course of history in the Americas.
On Halloween, October 31 1753, the Lieutenant Governor, Robert Dinwiddie, sent Washington to deliver a message to French troops at Fort LeBoeuf. Washington asked the French troops to leave the land they occupied in what is now Pennsylvania. The land was claimed by Britain. In short, Washington told them to “back off” and “get out”. The French said “no”, and Washington rode quickly back to Virginia.
Dinwiddie gave Washington troops and told him to set up a post. George Washington facts show us that Washington had no problem with killing people. He commanded his small force against the French at Fort Duquesne and killed 10 troops, including the commander of the Fort. Washington was directly involved in starting the French and Indian War. He was 21 years old.
During the French and Indian War, Washington was named as an honorary officer in the British Army. After suffering some defeats, George Washington facts show that he proved himself as a military leader in the French and Indian War.
Many George Washington facts are based on reviewing his letters from during the important time of Independence in the Americas. Even after the Stamp Act of 1865, Washington did not take an active role in the uprisings in the British Colonies. By 1767, however, Washington’s opinions had changed.
Washington saw the actions of the British as violating fundamental rights of citizens in the British Colonies. After all, his family had emigrated from England in 1657. He could claim direct ancestry on British soil. George Washington facts show that he became more vocal about his opposition to the British at this time.
First, George Washington tried economic sanctions, proposing that Virginia boycott all British goods until the various Acts imposed by the British were repealed. By 1774, there was still no change, and Washington chaired a meeting calling for the Continental Congress, and advocating force as the last means of resistance against the British.
Our George Washington facts show that when Washington was only 21 years old, he attacked a French fort and killed 10 men, including the commander of the fort. In May of 1775, the Second Continental Congress convened.
George Washington was ready for war. He road to the Second Continental Congress dressed in his military uniform. On June 15 1775, he was named Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of the colonies. No other person, President, or otherwise, would hold this position until Abraham Lincoln in the Civil War.
George Washington facts show that he was such a natural leader. He didn’t actively seek the role of Commander-in-Chief, but was fully prepared to take charge when the time was right.
There were a lot of reasons for choosing Washington as the commander of the armed forces. Up until this time, the resistance to British rule had been primarily focused in the New England colonies. Washington was chosen partly because he was from a Southern colony and it was important to unify colonial efforts against the British.
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It’s 1776, and the American War for Independence is raging. Despite all of his experience, and natural leadership, George Washington is not ready to face the British army. It’s impossible to think of any person who would have been prepared to face the world’s most powerful army with the comparatively few resources the colonies had at the time.
Washington suffered major defeats at the hands of the British, including in New York City where he lost 2,800 men. He wasn’t ready to fight the British Army at first. The defeats must have taught him the remaining lessons he needed to know.
The George Washington facts from this time on show that it would be impossible to think of anyone other than George Washington who could have led the colonial forces against the world’s most powerful army. Using guerilla warfare tactics, George Washington changed his strategy and attacked British mercenaries by surprise after crossing the Delaware River on Christmas Night 1776. He continued to use this approach until the British surrendered.
George Washington facts throughout his life show that he was such a natural leader, that he never actively sought any office or assignment. However, when the time was right, and circumstances required it, George Washington was ready to fulfill his duty.
George Washington became an increasingly adept leader throughout the War for Independence in the Americas. He learned military strategy, and also the importance of political strategy in war. Washington, with the help of Ben Franklin, received aid from their previous enemies, the French. This proved crucial to winning the war.
After the war, fun facts about George Washington show that Washington wanted to return to Mount Vernon and work on his estate. His estate had suffered throughout the War for Independence. Washington was able to bring it back to prosperity with the help of a grant from the new United States Congress.
Washington was hesitant to return to public service. However, he saw that the fragile experiment in democracy was not holding together the way it should. After Shay’s Rebellion, he knew it was time to take action.
interesting facts about George Washington show that despite his desire to return to civilian life, the young United States needed his leadership skills. In 1786, he didn’t make a big show or a large public speech, but he lobbied hard for a new constitution to be put in place.
There was a lot of resistance to the new constitution in the United States. Without Washington’s political efforts, it’s unlikely the new constitution would have passed. The measure was so close that it was only approved by 1 vote in Washington’s home state of Virginia!
George Washington would probably have liked to retire at this point, after returning again to public service and seeing that the new constitution passed. However, the United States needed his leadership once more. At 57 years old, George Washington was elected by unanimous electoral vote as the first President of the United States of America.
He no longer had his Commander-in-Chief powers. The newly formed United States did not want a President to have political and military power. It was only during the Civil War that Abraham Lincoln would become the first person to be both President and Commander-in-Chief at the same time.
After restoring Mount Vernon to prosperity, George Washington facts show that Washington did not want to receive the $25,000 per year salary that was paid by Congress for being President of the United States. He wanted to show his dedication was to the role, and not the financial compensation.
However, it was important that the office of the President could be occupied by anyone, whether they were rich or poor. For this reason, there needed to be a salary. Always a sensible person, Washington agreed to accept the salary for this reason.
Fun facts about George Washington show that George Washington would have made a great CEO. While running his estate at Mount Vernon, he certainly fulfilled many of the duties of a CEO. It’s clear that he was a natural leader.
George Washington put all this experience to work and set the tone for the Presidency as a practical President. George Washington fun facts show that he put together a great cabinet, including Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. He never acted rashly, and always took the council of his cabinet into consideration when making decisions.
George Washington facts for kids show that he was an able financial administrator as well. He introduced several measures that reduced the debt of the United States. There was an uprising after a tax was imposed on liquor, which Washington put down personally. He may have been President, but he was still George Washington, and was never one to shy away from a fight when he believed he was in the right.